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About Ballari

Every one of us knows that Education is power that makes one to be creative, disciplined and confident. Education is an important aspect to develop human capabilities to lead the life meaningfully. Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) is the dream of our Nation .In this regard, Indian Constitution provides some rights to every human being through various constitutional provisions related to UEE.

A)HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:
The Ballari district has the regards as the center of political and cultural importance since medieval period. It is the place of the great artist Ballari Raghava who was admired by George Bernard Shah for his paramount acting. His remarkable contribution for the art is unique and exemplary The district is world famous for the abundant and rich manganese ore. The physical structure of Ballari district is mixture of hilly area, dry as well as irrigated land. The Thungabadhra River is the main source of agricultural activities. One of the world famous heritage center “Hampi” was the capital of Vijaynagara Kingdom.

Stone Chariot Hampi Bellari Fort

B) GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES:
Ballari district has spread from Southwest to Northeast and is situated on the eastern side of Karnataka State. The district is situated between 140 30’ and 150 50’ north latitude and 750 40’ and 770 11’ east longitude. This district is surrounded by Raichur district on the North, by Haveri district on the west, Chitradurga and Davanagere districts on the South and Ananthpur and Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh on the East. It comes under the administrative control of Gulburga division and development jurisdiction of Hyderabad Karnataka Development Programme (HKDP), Gulbarga. The normal rainfall is 64 cm. The Important rivers of the district are Thungabudra and its tributaries, the Hagari and Chikka hagari.  
                        
As shown in table 1.1 the district consists of two revenue sub-divisions and 7 revenue (8 Education blocks) talukas. Ballari Sub-Division covers 3 taluks (Ballari, Sandur & Siruguppa) and Hospet Sub-Division covers (Hagari bommanahalli, Hospet, Huvinahadagali & Kudligi). There are 27 hoblies, 1 City Municipal Council, one City Corporation, one Town Municipality, seven town panchayats, 522 Revenue villages and 436 Thandas/Habitations. The total area under the forest in the district is 1517.19 sq. Km. This works out to be about 18.02% of the total area of the district.  


The district is characterized by dryness in the major part of the year; it has a hot summer. The district has a meteorological observatory at Ballari. The period from the later half of November is the coolest part of the year. The temperature begins to rise by the end of the February and by April it is hottest. The major ores that are deposited in Ballari district are copper, manganese, red-oxide of iron, galena, calcite, gypsum, asbestos, gold-corundum, white clay, soap stone, lime stone, building and decorative stones. The Sandur taluk has maximum deposit of ores (73.75%) and Hospet stands second in the district.

Table 1.1 Salient features

Geographical Area

8420 sq. Km.

No. of Habitations

1000

No. of Revenue Villages

522

No. of Grama panchayats

189

No. of Town panchayats

7

No. of Revenue Blocks

7

No. of Education Blocks

8

No. of Town Municipalities

1

No. of City Municipal Councils

1

No. of City Corporations

1

No. MLA Constituency

8

No. MP Constituency

1


C) SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS:
The major occupation of this district is agriculture and 75%  of total labor force is dependent on agriculture for its livelihood. As per 1991 census, the percentage of working population in the district was 43.0% (7.08 lakhs). Among these workers 33% are Agriculturists and 41% are agricultural labours, 6% are working in Mining and small-scale industries and the remaining 20% are self-employees. The annual per capita income in the district is Rs.9971/-, which is lower than the state per capita income, which is Rs.13294.  The important crops grown are Cotton, Jowar, Groundnut, Paddy, Sunflower and Cereals. The net irrigated area is 37% to the net area sown.

Food habits: The staple food of the most of the people in the district is jowar The middle and upper class people use more rice than others. Ragi is ground into flour and made balls called 'Ragi Mudde'.
Dress: Elderly people wear dhoti in the form of katche. A shirt or angavastra is some time thrown over the shoulders. Women wear sari and kuppasa. Usual dress of girls consists of skirt and jacket or frock.
Ornaments: The passion for ornament is universal. Lightness and fineness of ornament is now preferred. Every big village has its goldsmith. Gold ornaments usually consists of earrings, nose studs necklaces bangles and rings etc.
Language: The following languages are spoken in the district. Kannada,Telugu, Tamil, Hindi, Malayalam, English etc. of which Kannada is the principal language. Most of the people use languages and dialects other than Kannada as their mother tongue.

D) ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE:
Deputy Commissioner and Chief Executive Officer of Zilla Panchayat (ZP) looks after the district administration. The Zilla Panchayat has a elected body represented by 36 ZP members, one of which will be chairman and one will be vice chairman. The ZP will have different sub committees like Health and Education, Agriculture, Social justice,Finance etc. Health and Education sub committee looks after the department of Education. Similarly at Taluk level Tahashildars and Taluk Panchayat Executive Officers (TPEO) looks after the administration of the taluk along with the elected body of taluk panchayat. In the district 189 Grama panchayats (GP) are established which look after the development of the villages comes under the jurisdiction. The GPs are also having an elected body headed by the Chairman. The term of all the elected bodies i.e ZP, TP and GP is 5 years.

E) LITERACY SCENARIO:
Literacy in general, plays a vital role in the overall development of any society. The literacy rate as per 1996 estimates was 51% in this district as compared to State literacy rate of 63%. The total Literacy Campaign (TLC) and DPEP had been launched in this district during 1993. 4.11 lakhs illiterates were identified in the erstwhile Ballari district in the age group of 9 – 35 years. The internal and external evaluation studies revealed 52% success rate and recommended for Post Literacy Campaign (PLC) and SSA. The P.L.C. and ‘Kannada Nadu Sakshara Nadu’ programmes have also come to an end and at present Continuing Education Center (CEC) are functioning and the vertical expansion is being in progress.

Table 1.5: Literacy Rate:

Literacy Rate

1991

2001

Male

Fem.

Total

Gender Gap

Male

Fem.

Total

Gender Gap

National

64.13

39.29

52.21

24.84

75.85

54.16

65.38

21.69

State

67.26

44.34

56.04

 

22.92

76.29

57.45

67.04

18.84

District

47.01

25.04

36.02

 

21.97

68.76

45.01

57.04

23.75


Compared to 1991 census, the Female Literacy Rate is increased by 19.97% in 2001 census. The Male Literacy Rate is increased by 21.75%. There is overall 20.84% increase in the literacy rate of the district.

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